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#### Lesson 13: Creating Complex Formulas

### Introduction

#### Order of operations

#### Creating complex formulas

#### To create a complex formula using the order of operations:

### Challenge!

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You may have experience working with formulas that contain only one operator, such as **7+9**. More complex formulas can contain **several mathematical operators**, such as **5+2*8**. When there's more than one operation in a formula, the **order of operations** tells Google Sheets which operation to calculate first. To write formulas that will give you the correct answer, you'll need to understand the order of operations.

Watch the video below to learn how to create complex formulas.

Google Sheets calculates formulas based on the following **order of operations**:

- Operations enclosed in
**parentheses** **E****xponential**calculations (3^2, for example)**M****ultiplication**and**division**, whichever comes first**A****ddition**and**subtraction**, whichever comes first

A mnemonic that can help you remember the order is **P**lease **E**xcuse **M**y **D**ear **A**unt **S**ally.

Click the arrows in the slideshow below to learn how the order of operations is used to calculate formulas in Google Sheets.

In the example below, we'll demonstrate how Google Sheets solves a complex formula using the order of operations. The complex formula in cell **D6** calculates the sales tax by adding the prices together and multiplying by the 5.5% tax rate (which is written as 0.055).

Google Sheets follows the order of operations and first adds the values inside the parentheses: **(D3+D4+D5) = $274.10**. Then it multiplies by the tax rate: **$274.10*0.055**. The result will show that the tax is **$15.08**.

It's especially important to follow the order of operations when creating a formula. Otherwise, Google Sheets won't calculate the results accurately. In our example, if the** parentheses** are not included, the multiplication is calculated first and the result is incorrect. Parentheses are often the best way to define which calculations will be performed first in Google Sheets.

In the example below, we'll use **cell references **along with **numerical values** to create a complex formula that will calculate the **subtotal** for a catering invoice. The formula will calculate the cost of each menu item first, then add these values.

- Select the
**cell**that will contain the formula. In our example, we'll select cell**C****5**. - Enter your
**formula**. In our example, we'll type**=B3*C3+B4*C4**. This formula will follow the order of operations, first performing the multiplication:**2.79*****35****= 97.65**and**2.29*20 = 45.80**. It then will add these values to calculate the total:**97.65+45.80**. - Double-check your formula for accuracy, then press
**Enter**on your keyboard. The formula will calculate and display the**result**. In our example, the result shows that the subtotal for the order is**$143.45**.

Google Sheets **will not always tell you** if your formula contains an error, so it's up to you to check all of your formulas. To learn how to do this, read our article on why you should Double-Check Your Formulas.

- Open our example file. Make sure you're signed in to Google, then click
**File**>**Make a copy**. - Select the
**Challenge**sheet. Let's say we want to compare two discounts. The first discount takes 20% off the total, and the second discount takes $30 off the total. - In cell
**D6**, create a**formula**that calculates the total using the 20% off discount.**Hint:**Because we're taking 20% off, 80% of the total will remain. To calculate this, multiply 0.80 by the sum of the line totals. - In cell
**D7**, create a**formula**that subtracts 30 from the total. - When you're finished, your spreadsheet should look like this:

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